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How AI is Reshaping Drug Discovery

How AI is Reshaping Drug Discovery
09/01/2023
09/01/2023
Atacana Group
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In a rapidly evolving world of technological innovation, artificial intelligence (AI) is perhaps the most transformative. It has already impacted numerous sectors, from finance to entertainment.

With its multifaceted capabilities, ranging from machine learning to natural language processing, artificial intelligence has come a long way from being the punchline of sci-fi movies to gaining mainstream status. 

However, nowhere is its potential more vividly realized than in healthcare, where its prowess is rewriting the rules of how we approach the entire field. 

In the pharmaceutical realm, it’s catapulting drug discovery into a new paradigm, promising treatments that are more effective and personalized.


AI in the World of Drug Discovery

While AI’s broader applications in healthcare—from diagnosis to patient care—are groundbreaking, its role in drug discovery is of particular interest. AI is shortening the pathway from research to pharmacy shelves. 

For the uninitiated, AI represents systems that mimic human intelligence. In the context of drug discovery, think of it as a digital scientist capable of processing vast datasets, recognizing patterns, and suggesting potential drug compounds at speeds incomprehensible to the human mind. (1)

Historically, drug discovery was a long, tedious process, often compared to finding a needle in a haystack. AI entered this space as a game-changer, transforming the haystack into a manageable bundle and highlighting potential needles with astonishing accuracy.

Machine learning algorithms can now predict how different chemical structures can serve as potential drugs. Deep learning models, on the other hand, can simulate and predict biological interactions. These are not mere theoretical advancements; they’re actively being integrated into labs worldwide.

Where traditional methods might have taken years to yield results, AI-driven processes promise outcomes in months or even weeks. Massive computing power, with AI as its conductor, can deliver and test hundreds of thousands of iterations in a fraction of the time. 

It’s not just about speed either—AI can enhance accuracy, increase safety, reduce costs, and improve the odds of discovering effective drugs on a shorter time horizon. In situations where a few days could equate to saving thousands of lives, this technology’s contribution is priceless.


Oncology and the AI Revolution

Oncology is the study of cancer, a disease as complex as it is dreaded. Traditional methods have often struggled to find consistent success in the realm of oncology drug discovery, with high failure rates and immense costs.

AI is ushering in an era of hope in oncology. By analyzing vast genomic datasets, AI identifies potential drug targets with greater precision. In effect, it’s narrowing down the research focus to avenues with higher chances of success.

Breakthroughs are already materializing. In recent years, thanks to global efforts, we’ve seen a massive increase in large datasets related to cancer. These aren’t just any datasets—they’re derived from advanced tools that might soon play a role in shaping how we approach research and patient care. One standout resource is the TCGA, a vast public database that covers a wide spectrum of data, from genetics to imaging. Other noteworthy contributions come from PCAWG, METABRIC, and GENIE. (2)

Instead of just looking at targeted genetic data, we can examine an entire genome. And instead of broad gene expression studies, we have detailed insights down to individual cells.

But here’s where the landscape truly shifts: In the midst of such diverse and comprehensive data, researchers have begun to harness the power of integrated datasets for profound insights. 
As highlighted by Bhinder et al. in their 2021 study on artificial intelligence in cancer research, when multiple data types were combined, groundbreaking models such as ones to improve predictions on the survival rates of cancer patients began to emerge. Similarly, other teams leverage this integrative approach, enhancing accuracy in understanding the efficacy of specific anticancer drugs. (2)


The Role of AI in Protein Antibody Discovery

Protein antibodies, nature’s defense molecules, play crucial roles in therapeutic treatments. Their significance in combating diseases is profound, making the pursuit of novel antibodies essential.

Harnessing the might of AI, researchers are mapping complex protein structures and predicting antibody-antigen interactions. These insights are invaluable, guiding the development of new antibody-based drugs with unprecedented precision. (3)

The discovery of potential antibodies for tackling autoimmune diseases, achieved through AI models, stands out as a testament to its capabilities. Such breakthroughs are setting the stage for many more in the near future.


The AI-Driven Drug Discovery Process

The drug discovery process, traditionally characterized by its iterative nature, is witnessing a metamorphosis. AI is empowering each phase, from target identification to lead optimization.

Beyond theoretical models, AI has contributed to tangible drug discoveries. A notable instance is the identification of potential compounds for treating ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a breakthrough achieved in a fraction of the traditional research time. (4)

While AI’s potential is staggering, the journey isn’t without hurdles. Data quality, integration of AI models into traditional workflows, and interpretability of AI decisions remain areas of active research and refinement.


Peering into the Future: AI and Drug Discovery

There is some indication that within a decade, the majority of drug discovery processes will integrate AI, making “computer-assisted” discoveries the norm rather than the exception. These aren’t mere speculations; they are grounded in the rapid advancements AI is manifesting. (4)

The path ahead isn’t without obstacles. Ensuring data privacy, addressing ethical concerns, and integrating AI seamlessly with human-led processes are all real challenges. However, solutions are emerging in parallel with these challenges, promising a smoother transition to an AI-dominated landscape.

Newer AI models predict drug interactions, side effects, and patient responses with greater accuracy. This not only translates to safer drugs but also a more efficient allocation of resources, reducing the overall cost and time of drug development.


The Clear Advantages of AI in Scientific Advancements

From achieving a higher success rate in clinical trials to predicting patient responses, AI’s advantages in drug discovery are manifold. Another undeniable benefit is the capacity to process and analyze vast datasets, making sense of information beyond human comprehension.


Traditional vs. AI-driven Methods

Traditional drug discovery often faced challenges like high costs, long durations, and low success rates. AI, by contrast, brings speed, efficiency, and a data-driven approach, transforming many of these challenges into solvable problems.

Through AI, we’ve been able to identify potential drug candidates for diseases that have stymied researchers for years. AI’s ability to comb through vast chemical spaces and predict drug efficacy is nothing short of revolutionary.


AI Success Stories are Growing

Recent research, notably from institutions like MIT and Stanford, paints an optimistic picture of AI’s role in drug discovery. These studies emphasize the value of factors such as precise algorithms, high-quality data, and seamless integration with conventional methods. 

For instance, a collaboration between MIT and Harvard led to the identification of a promising compound, halicin, which demonstrated potential as a novel antibiotic using AI-driven insights. This case not only validates the practical implications of AI but also showcases the significant strides made in recent years.


Private Sector Pioneers

The corporate pharmaceutical world isn’t merely adopting AI; it’s championing its evolution. By deeply investing in AI research and applications, these industry giants are paving the way for transformational breakthroughs. These efforts not only underscore AI’s utility but also influence its future trajectory in drug discovery. (5)
AI’s journey in drug discovery is replete with both milestones and stumbling blocks. Initially met with skepticism, technology has steadily won over many detractors, evolving from a novelty to a necessity. These evolutionary stages are not just narratives of the past but blueprints for future innovations. The trajectory AI has taken in drug discovery acts as an enlightening guidepost, suggesting how it might permeate and transform other industries. (5)


AI in Drug Discovery: A Global Impact

With the global pharmaceutical market projected to exceed $1.5 trillion by 2025, the role of AI becomes even more pivotal. Different markets, from North America to Asia-Pacific, are embracing AI’s potential at varying paces.

Beyond the labs, AI is influencing pharmaceutical logistics, sales strategies, and market predictions. It’s not just about discovering drugs; it’s also about ensuring they reach the right people at the right time.

While developed markets are leading AI adoption, emerging markets present unique challenges, from data collection to infrastructure. However, these challenges are also opportunities in disguise, awaiting innovative solutions.


Final Thoughts

The synthesis of AI and drug discovery isn’t just a fascinating intersection of technology and biology; it’s the frontier of modern medicine. As we stand on this precipice and look ahead, the horizon promises a world where diseases are not just treatable but preventable.

References:

  1. Yu, K. H., Beam, A. L., & Kohane, I. S. (2018). Artificial intelligence in healthcare. Nature biomedical engineering, 2(10), 719-731.
  1. Bhinder, B., Gilvary, C., Madhukar, N. S., & Elemento, O. (2021). Artificial intelligence in cancer research and precision medicine. Cancer discovery, 11(4), 900-915.
  1. Guarra, F., & Colombo, G. (2023). Computational Methods in Immunology and Vaccinology: Design and Development of Antibodies and Immunogens. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation.
  1. Bakkar N, Kovalik T, Lorenzini I, Spangler S, Lacoste A, Sponaugle K, Ferrante P, Argentinis E, Sattler R, Bowser R. Artificial intelligence in neurodegenerative disease research: use of IBM Watson to identify additional RNA-binding proteins altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2018 Feb;135(2):227-247. doi: 10.1007/s00401-017-1785-8. Epub 2017 Nov 13. PMID: 29134320; PMCID: PMC5773659.
  1. Stokes, J. M., Yang, K., Swanson, K., Jin, W., Cubillos-Ruiz, A., Donghia, N. M., … & Collins, J. J. (2020). A deep learning approach to antibiotic discovery. Cell, 180(4), 688-702.